Old Tatar Quarter of Kazan – the center of Tatar education of the 19th – early 20th centuries (historical overview of educational institutions)
The Old Tatar Quarter is the historical center of modern Kazan, where architec-tural monuments preserving the centuries-old history of the Tatar people have been preserved. The formation of the settlement is associated with dramatic events in the history of our people. After the fall of the Kazan Khanate in 1552, the life of the Tatar society moved to the settlement, located behind the Kaban lake. By the end of the 16th century. The Old Tatar Quarter becomes a kind of Muslim suburbian area of Kazan. The first mosque and the first Muslim educational institutions were opened in that territory. For several centuries, the Old Tatar Quarter was the educational and cultural center of Tatars. The study of the religious life of the Old Tatar Quarter is an important subject for researchers. Residents of this settlement were able not only to preserve, but also to develop the urban culture of the Tatar population in Kazan. There they built mosques, opened the mektep and madrasas, created material conditions to maintain their exis¬tence. The study is novel in that it is a comprehensive review of the formation and development of the Tatar enlightenment in the separately considered Old Tatar Quarter of Kazan in the the 19th – early 20 th centuries. The purpose of this publication is to study and analyze the history of establishing and developing educational institutions – mektebe and madrasas, to show their significance in the religious life of the Tatar-Muslim community. To achieve this goal, a number of tasks were set. It is a well-known fact that the history of educational institutions among the Tatars is closely connected with the history of mosques formation. A vast majority of schools opened at mosques. Madrasas, as the middle and higher levels of education of shakirds, although formally considered independent institutions, nevertheless, their creation and development is directly related to religious institutions. The educational process was provided by the clerics of mosques – Imam-khatiba. Therefore, from our perspectibe, the history of educational institutions formation should be studied in conjunction with the history of mosques. The study examines 10 mahallas and mosques located on the territory of the Old Tatar Quarter. When the author provides information about the mosque of a certain mahalla, he also reveals the history of the establishment and development of an educational institution belonging to this mahalla. The author also considers the transition from radimitschi to djadidists method of teaching in madrasas settlement. The article investigates the periods of cultural and educational development of the Old Tatar settlement. The first mosque, now called the Marjani mosque, became the first religious building on the territory of the settlement, not far behind, the Apanaev mosque was built. Famous educational institutions opened on the facilities of mosques and successfully competed with other educational institutions of the Muslim world in the Russian Empire. The madrasas of Marjani, Apanaev madrasa are indicative of that. The article also provides detailed information on the madrasa: Muhammadiya, Khalidiya, Gaffariya, Utyasheva madrasa , Guzmaniya, etc. It should be noted that the names of some madrasas have changed, the same madrasas in different periods are indicated in the sources under different names. It is also explained by the author of the publication. The author on the example of large madrasas shows teaching methods, their changes in connection with the requirements of time. The materials of the study make it possible to present the organization of the educational process in mektebs and madrasas, to trace the dynamics of the growth of the number of shakirds or their decline in different periods. Since organization of the educational process in all madrasas was approximately the same, a detailed description of the educational process in each madrasa would be unnecessary, therefore, the author focused on other significant facts. Archival sources at the madrasa Casamia give an opportunity to create a complete view on the problems of implementing the Russian language in the madrasas and the perception of shakerdom a new subject. The same situation with the Russian language developed in other madrasas. Madrasas and mekteps prepared educated young people, who by the beginning of the 20th century constituted the most active part of the Tatar intelligentsia. They became prominent scholars, writers, teachers, and cultural figures. Moreover, the author under the texts about madrasas lists prominent graduates of these Muslim educational institutions. The creation of mosques, madrasas, their maintenance would have been impossible without the participation of the wealthy stratum of Tatar society. Mention of the names of merchants and entrepreneurs Yunusov, Arsaev, Mustafin, Asimov and many other benefactors complements our knowledge of the history of education of the Tatars. The research is based primarily on archival documents, as well as on scientific literature on the given subject.
Keywords: mosques of the Old Tatar Quarter, educational institutions of the Old Tatar Quarter, schools attached to mosques, education among Tatars, history of the Tatar people, Madrasa Kasimiya , the Mardjani Mosque, Apanaev Mosque, Madrasa Muhammadiya , Tatar benefactors.
For citation: Salakhova E.K. Old Tatar Quarter of Kazan – the center of Tatar education of the 19th – early 20th centuries (historical overview of educational institutions). Istoricheskaya etnologiya – Historical Ethnology, 2019, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 294–311. DOI: 10.22378/he.2019-4-2.294-311
About the author: Elmira K. Salakhova is a Candidate of Science (History), Senior Research Fellow, Department of History and Cultural Heritage of the Peoples of Tatarstan, Sh.Marjani Institute of History of the Tatarstan Academy of Sciences (7A, Baturin St., Kazan 420111, Russian Federation); firstname.lastname@example.org